مشکلات رفتاری کودکان 2 تا 6 سال: نقش سبک‌های والدگری و استرس والدینی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش‌آموخته سطح سه تعلیم و تربیت اسلامی، جامعه‌الزهراء(س) قم. قم. ایران

2 دانشجوی دکتری روان‌شناسی، موسسه آموزشی و پژوهشی امام خمینی (ره) قم. قم. ایران

چکیده

هدف: پژوهش حاضر با هدف بررسی نقش سبک‌های والدگری و استرس والدینی در پیش­بینی مشکلات رفتاری کودکان 2 تا 6 سال انجام شد. روش: طرح پژوهش، توصیفی و از نوع همبستگی بود. بدین منظور 355 نفر (149 دختر و 206 پسر) از کودکان مهدکودک‌های شهر قم به روش نمونه‌گیری تصادفی خوشه‌ای انتخاب و مادران آنها به پرسش‌نامه مشکلات رفتاری کودکان آخنباخ (CBCL)، پرسشنامه سبک‌های والدگری بامریند (PSS) و پرسشنامه استرس والدینی آبیدین(PSI-SF) پاسخ دادند. در تحلیل داده‌ها از آزمون همبستگی و تحلیل رگرسیون گام به گام استفاده شد. یافته‌ها: نتایج نشان داد بین سبک والدگری مستبدانه و مؤلفه‌های استرس والدگری مادر با مشکلات رفتاری برونی‌سازی‌شده کودک ارتباط مثبت و معناداری وجود دارد. همچنین ارتباط مثبت و معنادار سبک والدگری سهل‌گیرانه، والدگری مستبدانه و مؤلفه‌های استرس والدگری مادر با مشکلات رفتاری درونی‌سازی‌شده کودک تأیید شد. رابطه سبک والدگری مقتدرانه با مشکلات رفتاری درونی‌سازی‌شده منفی و معنادار بود. نتایج تحلیل رگرسیون چندگانه گام به گام نشان داد که مولفه ویژگی‌های کودک مشکل‌آفرین از ابعاد استرس والدینی و سبک والدگری مستبدانه به خوبی مشکلات رفتاری برونی‌سازی‌شده کودکان را پیش­بینی می‌کنند. همچنین مولفه­های ویژگی‌های کودک مشکل‌آفرین و آشفتگی والدینی از ابعاد استرس والدینی به علاوه سبک والدگری مستبدانه نیز از مهم­ترین پیش­بینی کننده­های مشکلات رفتاری درونی‌سازی‌شده کودکان بودند. این یافته‌ها نقش مهم سبک­های والدگری و استرس والدینی را در شکل­گیری مشکلات رفتاری کودکان نشان می­دهد. نتیجه‌گیری: بنابراین تدوین و طراحی برنامه­های پیشگیرانه و آموزشی با در نظر گرفتن این متغیرها جهت کاهش مشکلات رفتاری کودکان ضروری به نظر می­رسد.

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